Jakarta Bean Validation

Bean Validation 1.1 goals

The expert group and the community focused on a few key goals as well as smaller issues.

Main goals


All of Bean Validation 1.1 work has been done in the open and in an open source way. Source code for the API, reference implementation, test compatibility kit as well as the specification and the website sources are available in the open. All discussions are done in the open in the publicly available development mailing list. Road map and proposals are also published on the website.

In short, everything is available at http://beanvalidation.org.

Dependency injection and CDI integration

Bean Validation uses a few components: MessageInterpolator, TraversableResolver, ParameterNameProvider, ConstraintValidatorFactory and ConstraintValidator. We have standardized how these objects are managed by a container and how these objects can benefit from container services. In particular, CDI support within Java EE is defined. Note that CDI integration also encompasses support for method validation.

An example of the most common use case is using CDI injection in constraint validator implementations:

class ZipCodeValidator implements ConstraintValidator<ZipCode, String> {

    @Inject @France
    private ZipCodeChecker checker;

    public void initialize(ZipCode zipCode) {}

    public boolean isValid(String value, ConstraintValidationContext context) {
        if (value==null) return true;
        return checker.isZipCodeValid(value);

Method validation

Bean Validation 1.1 allows to apply constraints on parameters and return values of methods and constructors. That way the Bean Validation API can be used to describe and validate the contract applying to a given method or constructor, that is:

  • the preconditions that must be met by the caller before the method or constructor may be invoked and
  • the postconditions that are guaranteed to the caller after a method or constructor invocation returns.

This enables a programming style known as "Programming by Contract" (PbC). Compared to traditional means of checking the sanity of argument and return values this approach has several advantages:

  • These checks are expressed declaratively and don't have to be performed manually, which results in less code to write, read and maintain.
  • The pre- and postconditions applying for a method or constructor don't have to be expressed again in the documentation, since any of its annotations will automatically be included in the generated JavaDoc. This reduces redundancies, thus avoiding efforts and inconsistencies between implementation and documentation.

Here is an example:

@RequestScope class Client {
    @Inject AccountService service;
    public void createClient() { service.createUser(...); }

@Dependent class AccountService {
    public User createUser(
            @NotEmpty String username,
            String firstname,
            String lastname,
            @NotNull @Email String email,
            @Past Date birthDate) {
        // parameters are automatically validated and an exception
        // is raised upon failure
        // Method code focuses on the business logic

Group conversion

The specification offers a way to alter the targeted group when validation cascading is happening. This feature is particularly useful to reuse a given object (graph) and to avoid leaking groups between various object subgraphs. It also makes for more readable constraints.

public class User {
    @Email String email;
    String password;
    @ConvertGroup.List( {
        @ConvertGroup(from=Default.class, to=BasicPostal.class),
        @ConvertGroup(from=Complete.class, to=FullPostal.class)
    } )
    Address homeAddress;

class Address {
    @NotNull(group=BasicPostal.class) String street1;
     String street2;
     String zipCode;
     String doorCode;

Message interpolation via the unified expression language

Constraint violation messages can now use EL expressions for a much more flexible rendering and string formatting. In particular a formatter object is injected in the EL context to convert numbers, dates etc. into the locale specific string representation. Likewise, the validated value is also available in the EL context.

    must be less than ${inclusive == true ? 'or equal to ' : ''}{value}

Integration with other specifications

A lot of the work produced is not in this specification but in others. In particular, validation of JAX-RS components is supported and reuses the Bean Validation method validation.

Detailed changelog

This list shows a detailed set of changes done in the specification. It does not cover everything (check the changelog appendix in the spec for this) but shows a detailed and feature centric view. It also references the issue ticket as well as the design discussions.

Issue Id (JIRA) Done Proposal Description
BVAL-241 241 Method level validation
BVAL-272 Close remaining loops in method validation support
BVAL-232 232 Solve cross-parameter validation
BVAL-274 274 Extend the meta-data API with required convenience methods for method validation
Should method validation methods be defined on j.v.Validator or a dedicated new interface?
BVAL-306 Clarify interceptor order in method validation triggering
BVAL-314 314 Provide ability to disable validation for method/constructor
BVAL-238 238 Support for container injection in ConstraintValidator
Discuss and clarify vf.close() and the usage expectation (ie when to close a VF)
Bring back interaction descriptions with Java EE and CDI in the Bean Validation specification
BVAL-307 Decide how CDI and Bean Validation is integrated
BVAL-265 265 Expose settings defined in XML in the Configuration API
BVAL-293 Finish renaming of ConfigurationSource
BVAL-226 Clarify whether the static or the runtime type should be considered when creating property paths in case of cascaded validations
BVAL-221 221 The constraint violation builder cannot put constraint on a top level map key
BVAL-208 208 Support groups translation when cascading operations (hosted on @Valid or not)
BVAL-259 259 Stop validation of composed constraints at first failing constraint
BVAL-327 327 Discuss whether or not getter should be considered constrained methods
BVAL-259 Enforce in the spec that @ReportAsSingleViolation does apply validators once one is reporting a failure
BVAL-219 Consider interpolating the value in error messages
BVAL-223 Add formatter syntax for interpolated messages
BVAL-198 Simplify creation of ConstraintViolationExceptions
BVAL-192 Add 'exclusive' boolean attribute to @DecimalMin/@DecimalMax constraints
BVAL-230 Add support for validating CharSequence types instead of just Strings
BVAL-249 Add unwrap method to ConstraintValidatorContext for provider extension
BVAL-282 Make clear whether it's legal to invoke Configuration#buildValidatorFactory() several times
BVAL-191 Introduce a addEntityNode() method to the fluent node builder API
BVAL-304 Add OSGi headers in the reference implementation